Yasmin Chairunisa Muchtar, Inneke Qamariah


Entrepreneurship is believed as the best suited solution to overcome unemployment issue. Entrepreneurship creates job opportunities not only at small scope but also at broader scope. Hence, entrepreneurship is labeled as the backbone to support the economic growth of a nation. The higher the number of entrepreneurs in a country, the higher the possibilities of economic development. Hence, this research tries to investigate factors which hinder university students to become entrepreneurs and the underlying motivation which attract graduates to choose entrepreneur as primary career choice. This study uses qualitative research method by conducting Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and in-depth interviews. Next, there was a psychological test held to analyze entrepreneurial aptitude for 29 university students. Result shows 79.3% of total respondents have entrepreneurial potential and 72.4% of total respondents have entrepreneurial intention. Moreover, there are four students (%) with entrepreneurial intention possessing a low entrepreneurial potential. In addition, there are six students (%) with no entrepreneurial intention but have entrepreneurial potential.


entrepreneurial career intention, entrepreneurial potential, entrepreneurial characteristics


Abbasi, M.H., Siddiqi, A. and Rahat ul Ain, Azim. (2011), “Role of Effective Communications for Enhancing Leadership and Entrepreneurial Skills in University Students”, International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 242-250.

Ajzen I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 179-221.

Bagheri, A. and Z. A. L. Pihie. (2010). Role of family leadership development of university students. World Applied Science Journal 11(4): 434–442.

Bandura, A. (1994). Exercise of Personal and Collective Efficacy in Changing Societies. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Selfefficacy in Changing Societies (pp. 1-45). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Qoutient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems, 28.

Baron, R. A. (2000). “Psychological Perspectives on Entrepreneurship: Cognitive and Social Factors in Entrepreneurs Success,” Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol. 9 No. 1, pp.15–18.

Brockhaus, R. H. Sr., & Horwitz, P. S. (1986). The psychology of the entrepreneur. In Sexton, D. L., and Smilor, R. W. (Eds.), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 25-48

Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of managerial Psychology, Vol.18 No.8. pp.788-813.

Carr, J. C., &Sequeira, J. M. (2007). Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A theory of planned behavior approach. Journal of Business Approach, Vol.60 No.10, pp.1090-1098.

Chandler, G.N., & Hanks, S.H. (1994). Founder competence, the environment and venture performance. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol.18 No.4, pp.77–89.

D’Este, P.; Perkmann, M. (2011), Why do academics engage with industry? The entrepreneurial university and individual motivations. Journal Technology Transfer. Vol. 36 No.2. pp.316–339.

Dollinger, M.J. (2003). Entrepreneurship: strategies and resources. 3 rd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Drnovšek, M., Wincent, J., &cardon, M.S. (2010). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and business start-up: developing a multi-dimensional definition. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 16(4), 329-248.

Edelman LF, Brush CG, Manolova TS, Greene PG. (2010). Start-up motivations and growth intentions of minority nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management. 48(2):174-196

Erlina & Muda, I, 2018. The Effect of Self Efficacy and Professional Development on the Work Quality of Internal Auditor, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(5), pp. 1292–1304. http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=9&IType=5.

Fatoki OO. The entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students in South Africa: The influences of entrepreneurship education and previous work experience. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;5(7):294-297. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n7p294

Fayolle A. (2013). Personal views on the future of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development. Vol.25 No.7-8: pp.692-701

Greene, F. J. and G. Saridakis. (2007). Understanding the factors influencing graduate entrepreneurship, research report 007/2007. National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship (NCGE), March. http://www.ncge.com/ (accessed December 2013).

Herron, L. (1990). The effects of characteristics of the entrepreneur on new venture performance. Unpublished doctoral Dissertation, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Hisrich, R.,, (2013). Entrepreneurship, 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ivan Stefanovic, Sloboda Prokic & Ljubodrag Rankovic. (2010). Motivational and success factors of entrepreneurs: the evidence from a developing country. Zd. Rad.Ekon. Fak.Rij. Vol.28 sv.2, 251-269.

J. Tan. Breaking the ‘bamboo curtain’ and the ‘glass ceiling’: the experience of women entrepreneurs in high-tech industries in an emerging market. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol.8 No.2, pp. 547-564

Junita, A., Erlina; Erwin A; Muda, I & Abdullah, S. (2018). Influence of budget participation and leadership style against rebudgeting on work unit of apparatus, JBRMR , Vol.13 No.02, pp.272-282.


Keat, O. Y., C. Selvarajah and D. Meyer. 2011. Inclination towards entrepreneurship among university students: An empirical study of Malaysian university students. International Journal of Business and Social Science. Vol.2 No.4: pp.206–220.

Kim-Soon, N., Ahmad, A.R., Ibrahim, N.N. (2018), Understanding the Motivation that Shapes Entrepreneurship Career Intention in Entrepreneurship-Development Tendencies and Empirical Approach. Intech Open Science Open Mind. CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70786.

Krueger, N. (1993), “The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 5-22.

Krueger, N.F., Reilly, M.D. and Carsrud, A.L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 15 No. 5, pp. 411-432.

Krueger, R. A. (1988). Focus Groups. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Kuratko, D. F., & Hodgetts, R. M. (2003). Entrepreneurship: Contemporary approach (6th ed.). South-Western Educational Publishing.

Lau, T., K. F. Chan, and T. W. Y. Man (2000). “The Entrepreneurial and Managerial Competencies of Small Business Owner/ Managers in Hong Kong: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations,” in Research in Competence-Based Management. Eds. R. Sanchez and A. Heene. Stamford, CT: JAI Press, 187–216

Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., & Straus, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, personality, and the perceived quality of social relationship. Personality and individual Differences, Vol.35 No.3, pp.641-658.

M. Minniti. (2009), Gender issues in entrepreneurship. Found. Trends Entrep., Vol.5 No.7–8 pp. 497-621

Malebana J. (2014). Entrepreneurial intentions of south African rural university students: A test of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies.. Vol.6 No.2. pp.130-143

Manimala, M.J., Jose, P.D. and Thomas, K.R. (2006), “Organizational constraints on innovation and intrapreneurship: insightsfrompublicsector”,Vikalpa:TheJournal for Decision Makers,Vol.31 No. 1, pp. 49-60.

Marina Z. Solesvik, (2013),"Entrepreneurial motivations and intentions: investigating the role of education major", Education + Training, Vol. 55 Iss 3 pp. 253 – 271

McClelland, D.C. (1965), Achievement motivation can be developed, Harvard Business Review, 43 (November-December), pp.6-24.

Mohd Dali,N.R.S.,Abdullah,M.,Hisham,S.,Azman,A.R.,Nordin,S.N.,Muhammad,I.andFarah, M.Y. (2014), “The relationships between religiosity and entrepreneurial intention”, InternationalMuamalatandEntrepreneurshipConference,ShahAlam,November,availableat:https://doi.org/ 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Mortan, R.A. Ripoll, P., Carvalho, C., Bernal, M.C., (2014). Effects of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Vol.30 No.2. pp. 97-104

Nwaogwugwu, P.O. & Okoye, N.E. (2009). Formal and informal communication: implications for the secretary. In Ahukannah, L. T. & Ugorji, E. I. (ed.) Applied office administrative procedure and business communication. Singapore, Times Printers Limited.

O’Boyle, E.H., Humphrey, R.H.,Pollack, J.M., Hawver, T.H., & Story, P.A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of OrganizaionalBehaviour, Vol.32 No.5, pp.788-818.

Otuya R, Kibas P, Gichira R, Martin W. (2013). Entrepreneurship education: Influencing students’ entrepreneurial intentions. International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies. Vol.;2 No.4: pp.132-148

Pamela, 2002, Creative Self-Efficacy: Its potencial antecedents and Relationship to Creative Perfomance, Academy of Management Journal. Vo.15 No.2 pp.341-356.

Pruett,M.,Shinnar,R.,Toney,B.,Llopis,F.andFox,J.(2009), “Explaining entrepreneurial intentions of university students: a cross-cultural study”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour& Research, Vol. 15 No. 6, pp. 571-594

Robson, P. and R. Bennett. (2000). SME growth: The relationship with business advice and external collaboration. Small Business Economics Vol.15 No.3: pp.193–208.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition, and personality, 9(3), 185-211.

Sanchez -CAÑIZARES, S.M., Fuentes-GARCIA, F., (2013). Gender And Entrepreneurship: Analysis Of A Young University Population. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies. Vol. 13-1.

Scarborough NM.Effective Small Business Management: An Entrepreneurial Approach. 10th ed. New Jersey, HD62.7.S27: Prentice Hall; 2012.

Scott Shane, Edwin A. Locke & Christopher J. Collins. (2003). Entrepreneurial Motivation. Human Resource Management Review. Vol.13 No.3: pp.257-279

Shapero,A. and Sokol,L.(1982), “The social dimension of entrepreneurship”,in Kent,C.A.,Sexton,D.L. and Vesper, K.H. (Eds), Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 72-90.

Sivarajah, K., & Achchuthan, S. (2013). Entrepreneurial intention among undergraduates: Review of literature. European Journal of Business and Management, Vol.5 No.5, pp.172–186.

Summers D. F. (1998). “An empirical investigation of personal and situational factors that relate to the formation of entint”, Disertasi PhD yang tidakditerbitkan UMI, University of Michigan Ann Arbor.

Tubs, M.E., &Ekeberg, S.E., (1991). The role of intentions in work motivation: Implications for goal-setting theory and research. Academy of Management Review, Vol.16 No.1, pp.180-199.

Zampetakis, L., Kafetsios, K., Bouranta, N., Dewett, T., & Moustakis, V., (2009), On The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol.15 No.6, pp.595-618.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S.E. and Lumpkin, G.T. (2010), The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: a meta-analytic review, Journal of Management, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 381-404.

Zimmerer, T. and Scarborough, N., (1996). Entrepreneurship and the New Venture Formation. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Zimmerer, Thomas W., Scarborough, Norman N., & Wilson, Doug. (2008). Essentials of entrepreneurship and small business management, 5th ed. Translated by Deny Arnos Kwary. Jakarta: Salemba Empat.

Zulfiqar S, Asmi F, Chandia KE, Sarwar B, Aziz S. (2017). Measuring entrepreneurial readiness among youth in Pakistan through theory of planned behavior (TPB) based approach. Business and Economic Research. Vol.7 No.1. pp.149-167.

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.