Charles OLUPOT, Geoffrey Mayoka KITUYI, Jose NOGUERA


The recent global recession has pushed businesses to search for means to efficiently and effectively manage their customers so as to remain competitive. This has led to the rise in the adoption and use of information technology in different business functions. These developments have yielded into the adoption of Electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CM). However, as this technology sees more prominence the developed countries, many initiatives in developing countries have failed. This study was intended to examine the factors that affect the adoption of e-CRM in developing countries. A case study was conducted in Uganda, in which 150 Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) where purposively selected from 30 districts to participate in the study. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Although the findings indicate that e-CRM was very beneficial in promoting SMEs’ new products, marketing existing products, keeping their customers updated and sharing information, most SMEs faced challenges in adopting to the technology. The main challenges were highlighted as lack of knowledge about the e-CRM, lack of ICT skills, poor infrastructure, lack of top management support and resistance to change. The study gives some valuable recommendations for better adoption of e-CRM in SMEs.


e-CRM; e-CRM adoption, SMEs; Technology adoption, Uganda


Achuama M. and Usoro A. (2010).Dancing with the Stars: E-CRM and SMEs in Developing Countries: Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance and Marketing, 2(2), 68-80, September 2010

Ajzen, I. (1985) ‘From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior’ in Kuhl, J. and Beckmann, J. (eds) Action-control: From Cognition to Behavior Heidelberg: Springer

Alam, S.S., and Nilufar Ahsan, (2007), ICT Adoption in Malaysian SMEs from Services Sectors: Preliminary Findings. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 12 (3).

Almotairi, M (2009). A framework for successful CRM implementation. European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems 2009. Retrieved July 30.2010, from www.iseing.org/emcis/.../Proceedings/Presenting%20Papers/C31/C31.pdf.

Amit R. and Zott C. (2001) Value creation in e-business. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22, No. 6/7, pp. 493-520.

Bagozi, R.P. (2007), "The legacy of the technology acceptance model and a proposal for a paradigm shift.” Journal of the Association for Information Systems 8(4): 244–254

Boyle, A.B. (2001), "The internet in industrial channels: its use in (and effects on) exchange relationships", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 16 No.6/7, pp.452.

Carcary, M. (2008). The Evaluation of ICT Investment Performance in terms of its Functional Deployment, A Study of Organizational Ability to Leverage Advantage from the Banner MIS in Institutes of Technology in Ireland, Limerick Institute of Technology.

Chen, I.J. and Popovich, K. (2003), “An empirical study on the e-CRM performance influence model for service sectors in Taiwan”, Business Process Management, Vol. 9 No. 5, pp. 672-88.

Chong, A.Y.L., Ooi, K.B., Lin, B.S. and Raman, M. (2009) Factors affecting the adoption level of c-commerce: An empirical study, "Journal of Computer Information Systems", Vol. 50, No. 2, pp 13-22.

Cooper, M. J., Upton, N., Seaman, S., 2005. Customer Relationship Management: A comparative analysis of family and non family business practices. Journal of Small Business Management, 43(3), 242-256. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (2nd Ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Davis, F. D. (1989), "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology", MIS Quarterly 13(3): 319–340

Adebanjo Dotun, (2003) "Classifying and selecting e-CRM applications: an analysis-based proposal", Management Decision, Vol. 41 Iss: 6, pp.570 - 577

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Gronroos, C. (2004). The Relationship Marketing process: communication, interaction, dialogue, value. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 19 (2) pp. 23.

Harrigan, P., Ramsey, E. and Ibbotson, P (2008). Critical Factors Underpinning the e-CRM Activities of SMEs. Retrieved May 20, 2010 from http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=paulharrigan

Isabalija R. Stephen, Kituyi G. Mayoka, Agnes S. Rwashana and Victor Mbarika (2011). Factors affecting adoption, implementation and sustainability of telemedicine information systems in Uganda. Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries.

Kellen, V.(2002). CRM Measurement Frameworks. Retrieved May 20, 2010 from Kellen’s website: www.kellen.net/crm_mf.pdf

Kevork, E. and Vrechopoulos, A. (2009). CRM literature: conceptual and functional insights by keyword analysis. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 27 Iss: 1, pp.48 - 85

Kimiloglu, H. and Zarali, H. (2009). What signifies success in e-CRM?. Marketing Intelligence & Planning. Vol. 27 Iss: 2 pp. 246-267

Krishnaveni R. and Deepa Ranganath (2011). Development and Validation of an Instrument for measuring the Emotional Intelligence of Individuals in the Work Environment – In the Indian Context. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment

Kelley Lee-, L., Gilbert, D. and Mannicom, R. (2003). How e-CRM can enhance customer loyalty. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, vol. 21 (4/5) pp. 239. March, S. T., & Management Decision, Vol. 34, pp. 5-14.

Hunt and Morgan, J. (2007). Customer Information Management (CIM): The Key to Successful CRM in Financial Services. Journal of Performance Management, vol. 20 (2) pp. 47-65.

Nguyen T. H .2009. 'Information technology adoption in SMEs: an integrated framework'. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 15 (2): 162-186.

Ortega, B. H., Martínez, J. J. and De Hoyos, M. J. M. (2008), The Role of Information Technology Knowledge in B2B Development. International Journal of E-Business Research, vol. 4 (1) pp. 40. p. 228.

Rajan j, & Bhatnagar J (2009). A holistic Frame work for mobile CRM from Data Mining perspective. Information management and computer security, Emerald Publishers, Vol.17, Issue.02, 2009, pp: 151-165.

Rao Madanmohan (2011). Mobile Africa Report 201; Regional Hubs of Excellence and Innovation. Extensia

Pereira Rex Eugene (2002) "An adopter-centered approach to understanding adoption of innovations", European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 5 Iss: 1, pp.40 - 49

Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York: The Free Press.

Shajahan. S (2007). Research methods for management. 6th Edition, Jaico Impression

Rogers, E.M. and Shoemaker, F. (1971), Communication of Innovations: A Cross-cultural Approach, The Free Press, New York, NY (Re-titled 2nd ed. of Diffusion of Innovations).

Roscoe, J.T. (1975), Fundamental Research Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences, 2nd ed., Holt Rinehart & Winston, New York, NY.

Sophonthummapharn, K. (2009). The adoption of techno-relationship innovations: A framework for electronic customer relationship management, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 27 Iss: 3, pp.380 – 412. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from emerald Database.

Street, C.T. and Meister, D.B. (2004), “Small business growth and internal transparency: the role of information systems”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 28, pp. 473-506.

Thong, J.Y.L. (1999) An integrated model of information systems adoption in small businesses, "Journal of Management Information Systems", Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 187-214.

Tornatzky, L. G. and M. Fleischer (1990). The Processes of Technological Innovation. Lexington Books.

Tornatzky, L. G.; Klein, R. J. (1982), "Innovation characteristics and innovation adoption-implementation: A meta-analysis of findings", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management EM-29: 28–45

Wixom, B. H., & Todd, P. A. (2005). A theoretical integration of user satisfaction and technology acceptance. Information Systems Research, 16(1), 85-102

Yuen Yum Hui (2007). The 7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government: Building Trust in Government; Workshop on Managing Knowledge to Build Trust in Government. Overview of Knowledge Management in the Public Sector. National University of Singapore

Zontanos, G. and Anderson, A.R. (2004), “Relationships, marketing and small business: Schimmel Kurt , Darlene Motley, Stanko Racic, Gayle Marco and Mark Eschenfelder (2010). The importance of university web pages in selecting a higher education institution. Research in Higher Education Journal

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.